What foods are actually genetically modified?
Definition GM foods or GMO (genetically altered foods or organic foods) are used in plant crops intended for use in humans or animals based on the development of the most advanced molecular biology techniques
These plants have undergone a change in the laboratory to improve the required property such as resistance to herbicides or an increase in the amount of nutrients.
These characteristics have not been successful in conventional methods, and can require a lot of work and a lot of time. Genetic engineering can solve these problems with the required precision and immediacy. Genetic engineering can produce plants with precise genes in a very short time and with special accuracy. Geneticism can isolate a gene that can be stable to drought. The gene can be transferred from plant to plant, and genes whose source is not from plants can also be used, such as animal genes and bacteria. The most common example is the B.t genes found in corn and other crops.
B.t Bacillus thuriginesis' is a natural bacteria that produces proteins and crystals that they kill larvae and insects.
Scientists in genetic engineering can transfer desirable genes from plant to plant or animal to plant and vice versa.
Some of the benefits of food GM genetic engineering.
It is known that there are already 6 billion people in the world and expect a doubling in the next 50 years. Providing food for such an increase of population is a fundamental challenge for future years. Genetic engineering ensures that the problem will be solved in several ways;
More nutritious food
More delicious food
Plants resistant to disease and drought with less need of water resources and fertilizers and more ..
Decreased use of pesticides
An increase in food supply is cheaper and has a longer shelf life.
Faster growth of animals and plants.
Foods with desirable properties, such as potatoes that absorb less fat while frying
Medical food that can be used as vaccines or other medical treatments. Researchers are working to develop an edible vaccine in tomatoes and potatoes. These vaccines will be easier to pass, store and treat instead of those that are injected.
Cleaning contaminated soils with heavy metals. Not all genetically altered plants grow them for crop, soils and groundwater continue to be a problem of contamination especially with heavy metals. Genetically altered trees can be used to clear soil from heavy metals.
How common are crops with genetic modification? And what plants are involved?
According to the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and the Agriculture Division of the USA (USDA) more than 40 plants have completed the federal requirements to enter the market. Some examples of such plants are; Tomatoes and melons that have been modified to brew more quickly, soybean and sugar cane and are resistant to Herbicides, as well as corn and cotton, which have developed great resistance to insects and other pests, not all of which are in supermarkets but are found in processed foods such as edible vegetable oils, Quantities of precautionary amounts of genetically altered raw material. Despite this, soybean and derivatives from these seeds as dietary supplements are a major part of exposure to genetically altered products.
13 countries in 2000 grow crops with genetic modification in commercial quantities, of which the United States the largest quantity 68% of crops are GM by farmers. Compared with Argentina, Canada, and China only 23%, 7%, and 1% in the order mentioned.
Other countries that began to grow crops in 2000 in commercial quantities are; Australia, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Mexico, Romania, South Africa, Spain, and Uruguay.
Who are those who oppose food with genetic modification?
Scientists and officials in the administration, environmental activists, trade unions, and public representatives are very concerned about what genetically modified food and farmers who are thinking of their profits are concerned about without worrying about the possible dangers. It seems there is a strong concern about food with genetic modification. Even the Vatican and the Prince of Wales have published their opinions against.
The main concerns are;
Damage to the environment
The danger to people's health
Unexpected damage to other living creatures. Not long ago, the journal NATURE reported that the molten t of corn caused the death of a large number of butterflies (monarch) butterfly catterpilars.
The B.t is not a selective poison that kills only pests in agriculture without causing damage to other insects.
There is debate over this issue by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Ministry of Agriculture.
For pesticides, their efficiency will be reduced. Insects may also be resistant to t or other genetically altered crops to produce the pesticide itself.
Transferring genes to non-genetically modified strains of genetically modified plants can be passed on to areas near plants without genetic modification. There is a dispute between the manufacturer / MONSANTO in the United States and the farmers who claim that their crop varieties from the neighboring territories. And the manufacturer claims that they received genetic modification without paying it.
All sorts of technical solutions try to separate the areas with the buffer area. The problem is that there will be a lot of space needed for separating what is irrational.
Danger to people's health.
Allergies - Many children around the world have developed deadly allergies to peanuts, nuts, and other foods. It is possible that one gene in the plant can turn it into a new allergen and the new plant will be allergic to sensitive people. A proposal to introduce a gene from Brazil to Brazil was postponed due to the possibility of possible allergic reactions. This requires careful testing of genetically altered food to avoid dangerous consequences.
Unexpected effects on people's health. Concerns about the effect of food on genetic modification are gaining momentum. An article published in the journal Lancet published the effect of genetically altered potatoes on the colon of the
At the end of the last century, the issue of genetically altered food caused a sensation in the news of environmental organizations in Europe and public groups opposed to genetic modification of food. All the controversial studies prompted the US Food and Drug Administration to organize three open meetings in Chicago, Washington, DC and Oakland, California, in order to obtain public opinion and began to prepare standards for government approval for food that undergoes genetic modification.
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